Supplementary Report June 1993 by Roger Atkinson, Project Convenor
The general objective for 1993 was stated as "make provisions for a number of sites which do not warrant the larger scale approach found to be appropriate for the Sydney and Melbourne sites" (Atkinson, 1992b). The plan for 1993 as drafted in September 1992 contained the following activities and expenditure to extend over a period of twelve months:
This report also provides a brief review of current issues in network access for distance education, open learning and community based purposes. It defines the differences between network access and network services, and shows how a wide variety of types of sites is emerging for providing network access. Institutional, community based and private providers all have a role in providing network access. In metropolitan and large regional centres, a number of providers of network access may cater for different types of users, or compete with one another for clients, but in rural and remote districts it is likely that a single provider must be organised in order to achieve viable access to the network.
Dataplex' s delivery time for rackmounted modems lengthened considerably since the initial negotiations. These units are now expected to be available early in October. As an interim measure, ten standalone modems were ordered from Dataplex for immediate delivery.Very considerable further delays have occurred in securing supplies of Dataplex's DPX-225-11 rackmount modems for the project. When prototypes became available, Monash University Computer Centre staff subjected the DPX-225 to several months of beta testing, during which a number of faults were found and corrected by Dataplex. It should be noted that the DPX 225 implements more advanced capabilities than the V32 (9600 b/s) modems envisaged originally for the project. The DPX 225 provides also V32bis (14,400 b/s) and the CCITT error correction and data compression protocols, V42 and V42bis. After completion of this testing, the Project's order for 2 racks and 32 DPX 225 cards was faxed to Dataplex on 5 March, with an expectation of delivery in early April. A number of extensions of the delivery date have been notified by Dataplex since ordering. The reasons given for the series of setbacks include Dataplex's commitment to an order of 1800 modem cards for Telecom, and delays in obtaining Austel approval for the rackmount power supply which has a different voltage compared with the previously approved version for Telecom.
After failure to meet the most recent extension, which was to "early June delivery", Dataplex provided a loan of ten standalone DPX 225s. These are being installed at the end of June, to give an interim capacity at Monash University whilst awaiting the current promised delivery date, 27 July. During the wait for DPX 225s, the University Centre in Sydney has continued to provide an interim capacity with eight modems which were temporarily installed in 1992.
Although the series of extensions in the delivery date have been very frustrating, the project has not cancelled the Dataplex order, nor changed to the standalone version which is now readily available. This is due to the extra work in finding and checking an alternative modem, the importance of conforming with Monash's own order for DPX 225 rackmounts, and a preference for rackmounts at both sites.
Statistical data for the University Centre has been collected by Bruce Robertson of University of Wollongong Information Technology Services. A program running on wampyr at Wollongong University executes the command "finger @ts1.unicentre.edu.au" every 15 minutes. The output of this is processed and appended to a datafile, from which can be determined the number of modems with an active call and the number of current accesses to the available hosts including the identity of the host. For example, the data for May show:
|Modems in use||Calls detected||Percentage use|
There are 2976 sampling occasions in a 31 day month and on that basis a percentage use can be calculated (with some rounding to integers). There are limitations with this type of program as it shows the state of connections at instants which are 15 minutes apart, and thus may miss counting a call which is shorter than 15 minutes. However, the data serve the main purpose of assessing the load on the modems and the major directions for the traffic. Whilst the data do not prove that there have been no occasions on which all modems were in use, it does seem that eight modems will suffice until the rackmounts are installed early in August. Call logging data from the University Centre PABX is incomplete at present, but during March 2744 calls to the modems were logged, that is an average of about 90 calls per day. Growth in demand is very difficult to predict, the upgrade to sixteen modems should provide adequate capacity for the next two years.
Until April 1993, connections to the University Centre encountered some problems with apparently noisy lines (data transmission errors). This was probably due to an earth loop caused by the installation of a 48 volt supply on the Nortel PABX without a proper power earth. After correction of this fault by University of Wollongong staff, a very high standard of transmission is now achieved. For example, some short test calls without an error correcting modem from Murdoch University to cleo.murdoch.edu.au, traversing the continent twice via Telecom PSTN lines (and twice via AARNet's Megalinks leased from Telecom), showed completely error free transmission.
The requirements for additional work and host capacity arise because it is necessary to provide ADEnet users with a login and password on a host suitable for students. This ensures user authentication in accordance with AARNet and Internet procedures, before permitting such users to invoke telnet to communicate with their universities. The advantage of this approach is that it caters for small numbers of users without requiring a dedicated Annex 3 and an associated, dedicated set of modems.
Experience to date with the ADEnet Project suggested that about 10 to 20 users enrolled with other distance education universities will seek access in Perth each year. The ADEnet Project contributed $5,700, approximately equal to 3 modems, phone lines and terminal server ports, which is considered to be a reasonable excess capacity as compensation for the work which the External Studies Unit does in administering the site. This agreement will be in place for four years, during which time the ESU will look after ADEnet users (issue login name and initial password, undertake user support, and provide appropriate telnet privileges). Distance education universities provide ESU with an email contact for verification of student enrolments, and advise their students about who to contact (External Studies) for Perth ADEnet access. Depending on experience with the average level of demand for connect time, ESU may nominate an upper limit of 20 on the number of ADEnet login names active in any given semester.
The amount of $1,900 per port was agreed with the Computer Services Unit as a reasonable approximation to the average cost per port. This approximation is based on expenditure for a new Annex 3 terminal server and modem pool (Netcomm V32 V32bis V42 V42bis MNP4&5 standalones), with direct lines to the Telecom exchange which serves Murdoch. The direct lines were necessary because Murdoch's NEC 2400 IMG PABX has reached its limit of economical expansion, with all 1264 extensions allocated, and replacement with a more modern PABX is about 2 or 3 years in the future. The components for the approximate calculation are $440 per Annex 3 port, $940 per modem and $500 per phone line, with the total rounded up to $1,900 to include a contribution towards cabling and installation. The Annex 3 cost assumes that although configured for 32 ports, the effective commissioning over the next 3 to 4 years will be only 16 ports. The telephone line cost reflects the extra recurrent cost which the Computer Services Unit will carry for several years until a new PABX becomes available.
A small group of three high priority users of the Perth ADEnet site have had access since mid April 1993, during a period when a number of temporary modems, including the ADEnet DPX 296 standalones, have been in use. The permanent installation of 12 ports with two numbers on telephone rotaries (09 310 5122 and 09 310 5465) was completed at the end of June. It is now possible to accept all ADEnet users in Perth without restriction. Host Cleo has a command "adenet", which gives users a menu very similar to the University Centre Sydney menu. This is easier for users compared with the alternative which is to type commands of the form "telnet hostx.universityx.edu.au".
As a host administered by the External Studies Unit, Cleo will offer network access for selected categories of community users relevant for distance education and open learning support services. These include the Learning Network Centres and Telecentres which are being established in Western Australia. Such access is feasible up to the extent of the surplus capacity which the ADEnet project has funded in the modem pool, and the extent to which ESU staff are able to sustain the additional workload due to ADEnet and community users. As an experimental development, the Cleo project envisages that future policies on cost recovery will be determined after operational experience and empirical evidence has been obtained.
The approach to network security is the same as that adopted at Monash and the University Centre. The terminal server's intelligence is used to restrict callers to the addresses available from the menu. The menu is changeable remotely which is an advantage because Dubbo is about 200 km from Bathurst. CSU technicians have access to a "loop back" to log on as a user, then via a password which permits privileged commands, can log into the host port which controls the menus.
In order to economise on expenditure, a second hand 3 Com terminal server was purchased from Bond University. This unit has 10 asynchronous ports which provides ample capacity for future expansion in the number of modems and the number of PCs and Macintoshes for users who come on site instead of dialling in.
The responsibilities and contributions by the parties to the Dubbo TAFE site are:
|1. ADEnet project. Provide capital items (a).|
|Total cost to ADEnet budget||$12,056|
|2. CSU and UNE. Install, maintain and provide recurrent items.|
|ISDN semi permanent connection Dubbo - Bathurst 64 kb/s (b)
Installation by CSU staff - accommodation and travel
PCs for the "drop in" facility - not costed in this budget.
|Total for CSU and UNE budgets||$9,532|
|3. Dubbo TAFE. Provide accommodation.|
|Rooms, access to PABX and cabling within the Dubbo campus provided without charge to the project and not costed in this budget.|
The Dubbo TAFE site provides potential options for some innovative expansion in the future. It could develop the additional function of providing a community based network access service on a fee paying basis, via a host similar to cleo.murdoch.edu.au. One option is a local host shared by TAFE, university student, business and community users, whilst another option is a similar, remote host at a CSU or UNE campus. Under either option, subscriptions from fee paying users would help to pay the high cost of the ISDN semi permanent to the nearest AARNet connected campus, the Mitchell Campus of CSU in Bathurst.
Staffing relief or staff appointments for undertaking the project were not included. It became evident that this was a serious handicap and a major reason for the project proceeding at only about one third of the projected pace. Partly because of the severity of the continuing decline in institutional funding per full time equivalent student, projects of this type and complexity have a much greater need for staffing than has been customary in the past. A further twelve months should be planned for completing the project.
|Reserve Fund grant||90,900|
|Interest from Murdoch University 7,740|
|Less University administrative expenses - 4,166|
|Net interest earnings||3,574||3,574|
|Expenditure Main sites actual and committed||Item||Subtotal||Total|
|1. Monash site:
|a. Xylogics Annex 3 terminal server, 32 ports
b. Four 6 port Octopus cables @ $122 each
c. Rack mount kit for above
d. 16 DPX-225-11 modem cards @ $800 (1)
e. Rackmount and power supply (1)
f. Freight for d. and e. (1)
g. PABX and server lines
|Subtotal Monash site||29,221|
|2. University Centre Sydney site:|
|a. Cisco and PC routers - being an agreed share for the
Project to bear, approx. one third of the cost of these
these items, shareable with other functions at the UC.
b. Annex III terminal server - full cost for a 32 port
configuration as requisitioned for the Monash site,
plus connectors, software and miscellaneous items
not available already at the University Centre.
c. Part cost for second tier of Nortel SLI PABX
expansion, an agreed share for the Project to bear.
d. One 16 port card for PABX 16 lines to modems.
e. Power supplies, racks, installation, general cabling.
f. 16 DPX-225-11 modem cards @ $800 (1)
g. Rackmount and power supply (1)
h. Freight for f. and g. (1)
|Subtotal University Centre Sydney site||33,558|
|Subtotal main sites||62,779|
|Expenditure Small sites actual and committed||Item|
|2. Murdoch University Perth site|
|Freight 3 modems from Monash to Murdoch University
Computer Services Unit for 3 Annex ports, phone lines
|Subtotal Murdoch University Perth site||5,826|
|3. Dubbo TAFE site (2)
|Router (NAT) at Dubbo
X21 card for Summit multiplexer at Dubbo
Half share of X21 card for MSPAN mux at Bathurst (est)
Modems, two Dataplex DPX 296 V32 MNP4&5 @ $750
Install 2 exchange lines
Terminal Server (3 Com CS210) second hand ex Bond Uni
Cabling and transceivers
Freight on terminal server and modems (estimated)
|Subtotal Dubbo TAFE site||12,056|
|Subtotal small sites
|Total expenditure actual and committed all sites||80,661|
|Eight DPX-296 V32 standalone modems @ $750 in reserve (3)||6,000|
|Funds remaining in WADEC ADEnet account 26 June 1992 (4)||7,813|
This is a terse, specialised definition of access, such as may be used by network engineers. It is a definition which places the broader aspects of "access", such as whether the users are able to use their access productively for service purposes, and whether there are service providers available, into a different category of functions. The search for network access and the responses by access providers are very well illustrated by the large number of items appearing in the network newsgroup alt.internet.access.wanted, and less frequently in other newsgroups such as aus.comms and aus.aarnet. Very typically, there are two main classes of network access, related to the types of services available through that access provider, as described below, and there are other differentiations which may be applicable, such as the differences between ethernet or token ring local area network access to a host, and serial port modem or local area network access.
The significance of this specialised definition of network access is that it does summarise the core part of the ADEnet Project. ADEnet is concerned with network access, that is access to AARNet. All forms or levels of network services are provided by others through network peers, with just one important exception which concerns compliance with network security expectations. The project shows how it is possible to separate or integrate the provision of access and the provision of services in flexible ways which can adapt to local opportunities. In circumstances such as the project's Sydney and Melbourne sites, network access is all that is provided, mainly by dedicated equipment. In other circumstances, such as the Perth site at Murdoch University, the network access is wholly via shared resources and is mediated by a network peer, cleo.murdoch.edu.au, which can provide both services and access.
Network services is subject to a more complex definition. In general, users want services which are layered upon the TCP/IP protocol set and are usually named as email, news, ftp and telnet, although very few novice users and providers would be able to articulate their needs in terms of the basic or "technical layer" carriage of "services". For most, network services is usually a broad term, which may include areas such as support for enrolment in a formal education course, user support in the form of training and provision of user friendly interfaces, network information sources such as online library catalogues, information retrieval tools such as gopher, and so on. The ADEnet project is not concerned with the provision of network services, although there are very important interactions. For example, a high level of demand for services results in a high level of demand for access, which permits economies of scale, as illustrated by the major sites. With small sites, certain resources required for access are more economical if shared with resources for services, as for example is done with cleo.murdoch.edu.au.
The range of network services may be affected by differences in types of network access. ADEnet gives its users access to email, netnews, ftp (file transfer protocol) and telnet (remote login to a network peer). However, there is a growing number of network access providers which can offer email and netnews only. Typically, these providers are small businesses such as the Perth based Dialix, or members of APANA (Australian Public Access Network Association) which have purchased Mail Affiliate Memberships of AARNet (Saleeba, 1993; APANA, 1993). In nearly all cases their network services are confined to email and news only, because obtaining ftp and telnet capabilities would require a much more expensive payment to AARNet (minimum $5,000 pa compared with $1,000 pa). Whilst there are sound reasons for AARNet's policy, based on network traffic loads, it does inhibit the extent to which the small business and community organisation sectors can function as providers of network access.
The nature of network services is affected also by differences in types of network access. Within campus environments, the most prized form of access is by Ethernet connection of local hosts to one's own desktop. This permits use of a number of client server implementations which are very much more user friendly than the older style of serial port connection with terminal emulation software (Atkinson, 1992c). Users of modems via dialup connections are generally confined to serial port style interfaces which are not user friendly by modern standards. However, in the case of users who attend a local study centre, it would be very reasonable to aim for Ethernetted workstations to be available, given the great improvements in the cost and ease of local area networking in recent years.
The project has not made any direct provision for the recurrent cost of indial lines, as it is reasonable to assume that nearly all traffic is outside business hours and thus is using PABX indial lines which would otherwise be idle, that is the marginal cost is small or near to zero. Also, the project has to some extent provided a contribution of capital funds for upgrading a site's telephone infrastructure, in a way which balances or partially balances commitments to recurrent expenses incurred by the site. Whilst reliance on marginal costs instead of full average cost for indials and other elements of infrastructure could be criticised as being a hidden cross subsidy from institutional DEET recurrent income, there are good precedents for marginal instead of average costing (for example, in offering a unit for the Open Learning Agency institutions are not required to recover any part of the average cost of an existing, DEET funded version of that unit). Site items such as space used and power are not included because for modern equipment these are very minor demands.
With that exception, the question of admitting other types of users has been deferred until after the completion of current jobs. This includes deferral of questions about the status of full fee paying distance education students (who in the meantime have unrestricted free access as if this is a service for which they have paid through their fees). In the case of the Perth site at Murdoch University, the over capacity which is nominally 1.5 modems is available for community users on an free experimental basis, as indicated in the section on this site, and an initial small number was accepted in June. Inquiries about the potential for the Dubbo TAFE site to attract community users on a fee paying basis have been initiated, although it is unlikely that outcomes will be known until well after the target date date for completing the project's expenditure, September 1993.
|Site||Site type||Project expenditure||No. of ports||Average cost per port||Estimated cost per hour per modem, telephone line, port (1)|
|Monash, Melbourne||dedicated main site, Annex 3 server, existing AARNet, PABX||29,221||16||1,826||$0.76
Annex 3 has 16 unused ports.
|University Centre, Sydney||dedicated main site, Annex 3 server, existing AARNet, new PABX||33,558||16||2,097||$0.87
Annex 3 has 16 unused ports.
|Murdoch University, Perth||small site shared resource, Annex 3 server, local host, existing AARNet, PABX not useable||5,826||1.5||3,884||$1.62
Annex 3 has 20 unused ports. Approx. 1.5 modems for community users.
|Dubbo TAFE||small site inter-institutional, 3 Com server, PABX, 200 km to AARNet connection (2)||12,056||2||6,028||$2.51, plus cost of leased line to AARnet connection at CSU Bathurst. 3 Com has 8 unused ports.|
Notes for Table 1
However, there is considerable scope for current students to benefit from resource sharing with other types of users who do pay fees. All sites could implement a form of charging by requiring an institution or other provider to pay for expansion of site capacity prior to acceptance of the new users by means of additions to terminal server menus or issue of new logins on local hosts where that is required.
This project interacts with others. For example, Hedland College in the remote Pilbara region of WA has recently obtained Mail Affiliate Membership of AARNet, with most of the first year costs provided for by the DEET Communications Link Project. The College has made the following offer:
Date: Tue, 18 May 1993 15:10:00 -0500 (EST) From: Robert Hart[procedural details omitted]
Subject: Email for External Students (Murdoch and others) To: Roger Atkinson Hi Roger I would like to offer Email facilities to external students of Murdoch University (and other institutions also).
Finally, I am aware that we have students in the area completing studies at Uni of Central Queensland, Monash (Gippsland) and Deakin. A contact person for me at these places would be of use so that I can offer their students the same facilities. Many thanks.Acknowledgment of the Hedland College offer included the following suggestions:
In metropolitan and large regional centres, a number of providers of network access may cater for different types of users, or compete with one another for clients, but in rural and remote districts it is likely that a single provider must be organised in order to achieve viable access to the network. This is due to economy of scale considerations, and to the need for a high degree of aggregation of traffic to achieve a reasonably high rate of utilisation of a channel to AARNet, such as the ISDN semi permanent between Dubbo TAFE and CSU Bathurst.
From: C.Chaundy@its.unimelb.EDU.AU Newsgroups: aus.comms Subject: Preliminary Notice: Networkshop '93 Date: 29 Jun 93 11:08:53 +1000 Networkshop '93, the national AARNet conference, will be held in the World Congress Centre, Melbourne, from November 30th - December 3rd 1993. The conference is being supported by the AVCC through the AARNet Board of Management and is being organised by the Victorian institutions. The theme for 1993 has been chosen as "Access for the 90's" in reflection of the growing importance of the national academic and research network in all facets of tertiary education, from supercomputing to distributed information resources, systems development, distance education, open learning and peer networking. It is planned to broaden the appeal and scope of the conference, in supporting multiple streams in each of the following topical areas Networking in the 1990s - architectures, engineering, protocols, security Information Resources - distributed collections, access methods, WAIS, Gopher. Distance Education & Open Learning - distributed learning, access, resources Facilities - supercomputers, industry focus, data stores, teleconferencing, licencing and copyrightHowever, there are uncertainties about the extent to which AARNet can facilitate solutions to the problems of small sites and accommodate the general move towards a greater extent of "user pays" strategies. For example, the following extract from another email exchange illustrates some features of current debates:
Date: Tue, 15 Jun 93 19:46:09 WST To: firstname.lastname@example.org, Robin.Erskine@anu.edu.au From: email@example.com (Roger Atkinson) Subject: Re: Access to local facilities by foreign students Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org, C.Warren@deakin.edu.au, email@example.com, Neil.Clarke@cc.monash.edu.au, Keith.Heale@cc.monash.edu.au, firstname.lastname@example.org, Jim_McKee@central-gw.uow.edu.au, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Robin and Barrie, the email concerning the ADEnet project has been forwarded to me. A full description of the project may be obtained by anon ftp to cleo.murdoch.edu.au, directory /pub/Res-andDev, filenames ADEnet_Rept.txt or ADEnet_Rept.MacWord.bin. This is the report to DEET made last year, and a supplementary report will be placed on Cleo sometime before 30 June. Hopefully this will clarify the nature and status of the project.[some details and quotes from previous email omitted]
The ADEnet Project caters for only a modest part of the demand from just one group, external students enrolled with the DECs. What about the demand from internal students, from students in new types of fee paying distance education students (Open Learning Agency of Australia), and from staff who are temporarily located in some other city or centre? Maybe it's time for another full scale debate on strategies for providing network access. There is a wide range of possibilities, and different solutions may emerge to suit differing regional circumstances. There is one particular strategy which I want to flag for future attention. There is a steadily increasing number of "private" providers of access to AARNet, such as members of APANA, Pegasus and Dialix, although the scene is not as diverse as its counterpart in the USA. Unfortunately, most of these providers have Mail Affiliate Membership only. Three issues could become quite significant. Firstly, should universities enter into competition with the private providers? For example, I've been told that Sydney University charges its students $200 p.a. for AARNet access, and $300 p.a. for outside persons or organisations. Secondly, should AARNet encourage small scale private providers who undertake to support student users, by reducing the annual charge for Network Affiliate Membership at the lowest speed categories (details on Affiliate Membership may be obtained by anon ftp to aarnet.edu.au)? At present APANA and similar providers have to pay $1,000 p.a. for the lowest speed mail and news only access, but it's an unaffordable $5,000 p.a. for the lowest speed full service access (mail, news, ftp, telnet). Thirdly, should universities offload part of the student demand onto private providers so that students have to pay their own way, or should universities charge fees to students for network access in order to fund operations, or should universities continue to provide free access but you are unable to find a modem not continuously engaged?
The Project has developed two types of small site. The site at Murdoch University which is now operational is based upon sharing of a modem pool and Annex 3 server with Murdoch users, and a network host Cleo to provide user authentication. The agreement with Murdoch University provided for the Project to fund a capacity approximately twice as large as that required for ADEnet users, in order to compensate Murdoch for the extra work involved in administering login names and passwords for Cleo. The second type of small site is at Dubbo TAFE, where the basis is Project funding for the capital expenditure, University of New England and Charles Sturt University funding for the recurrent costs of a leased line to the nearest existing AARNet connected campus at CSU Bathurst, and NSW TAFE provision of study centre accommodation and telephone lines.
Capital costs per port are in the range $1,800 - $2,100 for a large site with dedicated modems and terminal servers but sharing PABX lines and AARNet connection, about $3,900 for a small site with shared facilities, and about $6,000 for a small site in which an existing AARNet access is not available. Recurrent costs per port are minor for large sites and for small sites with shared facilities, although this characterisation depends on the extent to which an institution will accept extra capital for dialup facilities to offset some acceptance of recurrent costs. For a small site with no existing AARNet access, recurrent costs are high owing to the need for an expensive leased line to an AARNet connected campus, although there are good prospects for the introduction of community and small business users whose subscriptions would help defray that cost. For this reason rural and remote districts should encourage network traffic aggregation and the emergence of a single local provider, in order to have the best chances for achieving viable access.
From the Project's grant of $90,900 and interest earnings $3,574, an amount of $7,813 remains after expenditure on Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Dubbo TAFE sites. Initial discussions are in progress with the University of South Australia concerning the possibility of an Adelaide site similar to the Perth site, although no commitment has been finalised. Completion of the ADEnet project is expected to be in September 1993.
Atkinson, R. (1992a). ADEnet: A national project to achieve low cost access to computing resources for distance students. Report by the Western Australian Distance Education Consortium to the Department of Employment, Education and Training on a National Priority (Reserve) Fund grant. Perth: Murdoch University External Studies Unit. http://www.roger-atkinson.id.au/pubs/projects/adenet-nprf-rept92.html
Atkinson, R. (1992b). Statement for DEET dated 29 November 1992.
Atkinson, R. (1992). Some developments in computer mediated communications. In J. Herrington (ed), Distance education: Future visions, p51-74. Perth: WADEC. http://www.roger-atkinson.id.au/pubs/devcmc92/devcmc92.html
Atkinson, R. (1992). Applications of AARNet computer networking in vocational education and training. In What future for technical and vocational education and training?. Proceedings, Conference of the NVCER, Melbourne, 14-18 December, Vol 2, p.1-14. Adelaide: NCVER. http://www.roger-atkinson.id.au/pubs/confs/tafe-conf92.html
Atkinson, R. (1992). The National Educational Communications Framework: Analysing the question of common technical specifications. In Hedberg, J. & Steele, J. (eds), Educational technology for the clever country, 175-188. Selected papers from EdTech 92, 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology. Canberra: AJET Publications. http://www.ascilite.org.au/aset-archives/confs/edtech92/atkinson.html
APANA (Australian Public Access Network Association) (1993). Information release 8/2/93. (Regularly posted to aus.aarnet, aus.comms and other newsgroups).
AVCC (Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee) (1992). AARNet Business Plan. Report presented to AVCC Executive Meeting 3/92.
Juddery, B. (1993). Getting down to the business of AARNet. Campus Review, p.11, June 24-30.
Le Roux, G. (1993). Desktop TCP/IP - a flexible alternative. Australian Communications, April, 95-102.
Moran, L., Hont, J., Calvert, J. and Bottomley, J. (1993). Electronic facilities network to enhance tertiary open learning services. Report of a project conducted for the Australian Department of Employment, Education and Training by Deakin University in collaboration with Strategic Technology Management Pty Ltd. Preprint copy, May 1993. Geelong: Deakin University.
Saleeba, Z. (1993). Australian Public Network Access FAQ. Release version 1.1 - 93/05/31. Item posted by firstname.lastname@example.org to Newsgroups: aus.general, aus.aarnet. Date: 31 May 1993 13:36:21 +1000
12 July 1993